Anyone who hears words like merino and cashmere knows that we are talking about fine wools. On the other hand, few have heard of words such as Giza , Pima , Supima , Sea Island , and even fewer those who they know it's cotton. Not many, when they buy a T-Shirt or a Polo, wonder what is the variety and origin of the cotton with which it is made. Yet the choice of the raw material is decisive for the wearability, the pleasantness, the elegance even of a simple item of clothing such as a T-Shirt.
The T-Shirt is perhaps the most essential item of clothing in a wardrobe, with which it is nevertheless possible to express great elegance and personality.
Who does not remember the dark and minimalist t-shirts worn almost like a flag by the most famous designers and influential personalities of the contemporary world?
A T-Shirt appropriate in materials and cut is able to give greater refinement and elegance to a casual outfit or can give an informal touch if worn under tailored jackets or elegant trousers.
This makes the T-Shirt a special garment to be chosen with great attention to materials, packaging, details finishes.
What are the best raw materials for making the perfect T-shirt?
Girelli Bruni manufactures clothing in various types of fine fabric , but cotton is the raw material that we prefer and that we know how to work best to transform it into clothing which you will no longer be able to do without once you have experienced the pleasure of wearing them.
To make T-Shirts, sweaters, polo shirts to fall in love with as soon as they are worn, not all cottons are the same. The wording "100% cotton" on the label does not provide any information to understand the quality of the raw material. understand that they are very different wines. There are many factors that determine the quality of a fine wine. The word terroir indicates that alchemy of elements that include grape varieties, production area, techniques and the winemaker's experience.
Similarly, the refinement of a cotton fabric depends both on the variety of plant from which it is obtained, both from the area in which it is grown, and of course from how the raw material is then processed by man.
Two T-Shirts, even if they are both made of cotton, can therefore be extremely different from each other. And just touch and wear one of our garments to immediately understand the difference between a fine cotton and an ordinary one.
Be curious, inquire, ask your trusted boutique, trust a brand that you know is attentive to every aspect of quality.
How is a quality cotton distinguished from a normal one?
What most determines the quality of a cotton is first of all the length of the fiber .
Cotton is a shrub whose seeds are wrapped in a fluff made up of innumerable ruffled filaments of vegetable fiber. These balls are collected and subsequently processed (carded) and spun with a procedure similar to that used for wool, that is, collecting more raw cotton fibers and twisting them together to create a continuous thread.
More Longer are the single filaments of which the raw material is composed the more they will twist together for a greater extension, thus leaving fewer free ends in the yarn that will result from spinning.
From a qualitative point of view, cotton is divided according to the length of the fibers, starting from short-fiber cottons (less than 2.5 cm), medium-fiber (about 3 cm) and then arriving at the excellence of long and extra-long fibers (more than 3.5cm). A long-staple cotton fabric will be smoother, cleaner, with a special sheen and shine, pleasantly soft and cool to the touch, less prone to wrinkling, resistant to rubbing and long-lasting.
For exactly the opposite reasons, the shorter the cotton fiber, the greater the free ends of the individual filaments that protrude from the thread they are twisted together.
The fabric made with short-fiber cotton will therefore be covered with a sort of down consisting of all the protruding ends of the individual filaments. The fabric made with short fiber cotton will be less pleasant to the touch, it will become covered with unsightly dots in the points where the fabric is subject to rubbing, over time it will tend to thin and stretch.
90% of world cotton production consists of short-fiber varieties that grow faster and are less demanding in terms of environmental conditions.
Another fundamental characteristic for determining the quality of a cotton is the fineness of the fiber it is made of. The fineness of a cotton fiber is expressed by a number called "fineness". The higher this number, the thinner the fiber and therefore the quality.
A very thin fiber allows the creation of thin threads with the same resistance which, when worked on the loom, will give life to very dense fabrics . A square centimeter of fabric made with a thin thread will have many more weaves than the same surface made with a thicker thread.
The result will be a more compact, uniform and smooth fabric, less subject to wear, stretch marks, tears. The seams on such a compact texture will be stronger, more stable and longer lasting.
The twisting process that the fibers are subjected to to make the cotton thread creates tensions that make it unstable. In fact, the fiber, by its nature, tries to return to the initial state it had before it was spun. If the thread tensions begin to release, the fabric can tend to “spin”. For example, it may happen that an item of clothing is deformed after a few washes, the seams do not remain straight, the overall symmetry is altered.
To remedy this defect, a thread can be made by coupling two twisted in opposite directions. We therefore speak of a double-twisted thread. In a double-twisted yarn, the tensions due to the torsion of the fiber counterbalance each other and cancel each other out, and the fabric is more stable, free of deformations, with seams that remain straight over time, even after repeated washing.
The creation of a double twisted yarn is only possible with fibers that, in addition to being long and resistant, are also particularly thin.
But how is it possible to know with which type of cotton and processing the T-shirts, polo shirts and sweaters you wear are made?
If you are not an expert or not you have the desire and time to devote to the search for fine fabrics, you can choose the garments of producers who work only high quality raw materials, just like Girelli Bruni, where we make the garments that we ourselves want to have the pleasure of wearing every day. < br /> Girelli Bruni selects only the best cottons in the world, with a maniacal choice that starts from the raw material and follows it in every step until the completion of the finished product.
Cotton for commercial use is divided into two main varieties: gossypium hirsutum and gossypium barbadense . From the former derive the short-fiber sub-varieties which supply more than 90% of the world cotton production. From the second instead derive the long and extra-long fiber varieties from which the finest fabrics are obtained. In addition to the length, the cotton fiber of the Barbadian varieties is characterized by remarkable finesse, resistance and a shiny and silky surface. It represents a very small percentage of global production and finds the ideal habitat to grow only in a few areas of the earth characterized by high temperatures and at the same time an abundance of water.
Giza cotton represents a small part of the production of Egypt, one of the largest producers in the world. Its origin dates back to the first half of the nineteenth century when cotton seeds of the Gossypium Barbadense (Sea Island) variety were introduced in Egypt by the Ottoman governor Muhammed Ali Pascià. After a few attempts, the plant found the ideal conditions of temperature, humidity and fertility in a small region of the Nile delta to produce a fiber with extraordinary qualities. Giza cotton, especially in the finest varieties, is considered among the finest fabrics in the world, characterized by a fiber of absolutely exceptional length, fineness, regularity and resistance. Even today it is harvested by hand to keep the fiber as intact as possible.
This highly prized cotton takes its name from a tribe of Native Americans who first introduced the cultivation and processing of the variety. of Barbadian cotton in the southwestern United States. Pima cotton is now grown in South America, mainly in Peru, the United States and Australia, in a few, highly selected areas where it is possible to obtain an extra-long fiber, greater than 3.8 cm with extraordinary fineness, resistance and silkiness.
It is a variety of Pima cotton produced exclusively in the United States by a consortium of companies that are subject to very strict quality regulations. The word comes from the fusion of the terms "Superior" and "Pima". Supima cotton has an extra-long fiber (around 3.8cm), and is incredibly durable yet smooth and soft at the same time.
With the term Sea Island we mean indicates cotton produced from Barbadian varieties grown in the Caribbean islands (originally West Indies): Barbados, Antigua, Antilles, Jamaica. Thanks to the high temperatures and abundant and regular rainfall, the cotton grown here expresses exceptional characteristics. In particular conditions, the Sea Island cotton fiber can reach 6 centimeters in length, coupled with an extraordinary finesse, regularity, resistance and shine. Production is extremely limited.
Once made, the cotton thread is passed into modern industrial looms (so-called circular weaving machines) for the production of the fabric. Depending on how the threads are intertwined and combined, different textures can be obtained. Girelli Bruni T-shirts, sweaters, shirts and polo shirts are made with various types of cotton fabric.
The simplest and most versatile cotton fabric, soft, elastic , smooth and pleasant to the touch. It is the ideal fabric for making T-shirts, polo shirts, sweaters thanks to its lightness, elasticity and freshness.
The cotton thread is woven by intertwining several threads to create a weft that seems to be made up of tiny honeycombs. The fabric is of greater consistency, pleasantly rough and warm to the touch. Piquet is the ideal fabric for making polo shirts.
It represents the maximum refinement among cotton fabrics, the workhorse of Girelli Bruni.
At the moment of spinning, the cotton fiber is twisted and released quickly, so as to obtain tiny zigzag knurls in the filaments. The cloth woven with this thread is particularly light, with a sensual satin dryness. To the touch it gives a surprising sensation of coldness. Worn, it pleasantly wraps the lines of the body and creates soft and elegant drapes without creasing and wrinkling.
Cotton grows only in tropical and subtropical regions, between the 37th parallel north and the 30th parallel south. The cultivation of the raw material is therefore the only stage in the processing of Girelli Bruni garments that cannot be carried out in Italy. For everything else, production takes place in Veneto , within a radius of no more than one hundred kilometers from Verona, the company's headquarters. This allows us to constantly follow, with the meticulous accuracy that distinguishes us, every single phase of production: spinning, weaving, dyeing, cutting, packaging.
The construction of our t-shirts and polo shirts is completely tailored, starting from the differentiated geometries between the front and the back, which ensure impeccable fit , designed to adapt perfectly to the lines and proportions of the body.
The sleeves are made with an asymmetrical construction to better accommodate the rotation of the arm, so as to guarantee perfect comfort and elegance.
The dyeing is reactive , a technique that coupled with the quality of the fibers ensures that the color penetrates and is deeply fixed, always remaining intense and uniform even after repeated washing.
These are just some examples of the care we put into the making of our garments. But in reality there are countless details and details resulting from experience and the continuous desire to improve that make our garments so special. From the choice of the material of the buttons, to the type of seams that ensure resistance and flexibility to the collars and cuffs.
Perhaps we have not yet arrived at perfection, but we work every day to try to achieve it.